(4) - Donal Appleyard carried out a study in the 1960’s which was later published in his book, “Liveable Streets”.  It was the first work of its kind to measure the relationship between traffic volume and social connection.  Ironically, Appleyard was killed by an automobile in Athens. In 2005, Transportation Alternatives (New York) produced a publication entitled “Traffic’s Human Toll”.  Their research found that people living on streets with light traffic had on average 18 friends and acquaintances, while those on streets with heavy traffic had only 8.  Of course, the real test would be to compare a true Carfree city with an automobile city.  I suspect those figures would be even more revealing.

“Traffic’s Human Toll: Transportation Alternatives”, edited October 4, 2006.
http://www.transalt.org/press/releases/061004trafficshumantoll.html, accessed November 2007.