(10) - "A Life-Cycle Model of an Automobile.", Environmental Policy Analysis v.3 n.7 (1988), pp. 322A-330A. Maclean, Heather L. & Lester B. Lave, Inistitute.of lifecycle environmental assessment - http://www.ilea.org/lcas/macleanlave1998.html
Relative to the energy used in driving, the average car requires an extra - 14% to build, 10% in fuel supply chain and 5% in replacement parts -