(1) - UN Press Release, United Nations Information service, POP/899 25 March 2004, Title “UN Report Says World Urban Population of 3 Billion Today Expected to Reach 5 Billion by 2030”,
http://www.unis.unvienna.org/unis/pressrels/2004/pop899.html - Accessed Nov. 07

“Forty-eight per cent of the world’s population lived in urban areas in 2003. It is projected to exceed the 50 per cent mark by 2007, thus marking the first time in history that the world will have more urban residents than rural residents. The proportion of the world population that is urban is expected to rise to 61 per cent by 2030”

“The world’s urban population is estimated at 3 billion in 2003 and is expected to rise to 5 billion by 2030. The rural population is anticipated to decline slightly from 3.3 billion in 2003 to 3.2 billion in 2030.”

World population moving from 6.3 in 2003 to 8.2 billion by 2030.

(2) - Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra, Transportation and Urban Form, University - http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch6en/conc6en/ch6c1en.html - Accessed Nov. 07

(3) - Arriving at the figure of 34 sq. miles. This gets a bit numerical !

Land area of Venice -

Approx. area of Venice - Main city (Rialto islands) = 5.6 sq. km, Giudecca = point 8 km, San Giorgio (Abbey) point.15 km, San Michele (Cemetery) point.15, Murano 1.1 sq. km. Tot = 7.8,
This is only an estimated figure, it includes short stay car parking, bus marshalling area, harbour and rail areas. It excludes the water area within the harbours and excludes the long stay car parks.
(7.8 kilometres ^2 = 3.0115968 miles ^2)

Population of Venice -

Because a tourist destination functions differently from a normal city I have based the population estimate of Venice largely on its 1950 figure, as this predates the rise of mass tourism, in 1950 the resident population was 175 k, Venice’s island resident population today stands at 65k dropping by approx. 1.5k per year, to this needs to be added unregistered students, visiting tourists and those staying in properties held as holiday homes. Venice receives 17/18 million tourist per year, about half of visiting tourist are day stay with an estimated 20 million individual night stays. Peak season holiday visits average about 80k per day and in extreme cases can rise to 150k (these figs are for 2006). this leaves us free to choose any figure between about 90k as a low season night population to 220k as a high season day population. The estimate I have used is based on 150k.

Auto space Houston -

Parking space is estimated for Houston at 30 spaces per vehicle (Asphalt Nation, page 64, Jane Holtz Kay, 1998, isbn 0-520-24620-2.
(An extreme example but perhaps not heavily out of line with the purest forms of the automobile city).

Parking space estimated at about 300 sq. foot (approx. 200 for vehicle & 100 for access)

Car ownership per 1000 estimated at about 650

(1 mile = 5,280 feet = 1.609 344 kilometres)

150,000 x 65% = 97,500 x 30 x 300 = 877,500,000 sq. foot -/- by 27,878,400 sq. ft = 31.47 sq. miles

Road space Houston -

(US Bureau of census, Lane miles per 100 households, LA 1.64, Houston 3.5, Chicago 2, New York.74 - http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger/7751/2272/1600/tab1.1.jpg - Accessed Nov 07

3.5 miles of lane per 100 household = 185 ft per household. Average population per household 3.3, therefore lane per person 56 ft, average lane approx. 12 ft wide, roadspace per person 56 x 12 = 672 sq. ft

The overall figure of 34 Sq. miles is consistent with a city of 150k at a density of 2500 per sq. mile allocating approx. 60% of land area to auto infrastructure.

(4) - Basing Venice’s population at 150k produces a density of 50k per sq. mile, in practice the auto city has a density of 2.5k per sq. mile which would actually explode Venice’s land area by a ratio of 20:1, 3 sq. miles would explode out to 60 sq. miles of which approx. 34 sq. miles (56%) would be automobile infrastructure. much of the remaining balance would be land set aside to buffer the residential areas from the automobile infrastructure.

(5) - Nozzi, Dom. Road to Ruin, p65, isbn 0-275-98129-0

(6) - Sloman, Lynn. Car Sick, p 123, Referencing Professor Jeff Kenworthy BSc(Hons), PhD, Professor in Sustainable Cities, Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy (ISTP), Murdoch University

(7) - History of transport and travel, History World, Bamber Gascoigne, 
 http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?groupid=1972&HistoryID=ab79
 - Accessed Nov. 07

(8) - Encyclopedia of World Biography© on Baron Georges Eugène Haussmann, Bookrags, http://www.bookrags.com/Baron_Haussmann - Accessed Nov 07.

“Under instruction from Napoleon the 3rd between the years 1853 and 1869, Georges Haussmann later Baron Haussmann cleared large areas of medieval Paris, within 16 years he constructed 71 miles of roads, 400 miles of pavement, 320 miles of sewers, 100,000 trees were planted, and housing, bridges, and public buildings were constructed., Haussmann stated, "My qualification? I was chosen as demolition artist" (Memoires, 3 vols., 1890-1893).”

(9) - Chronology of rail

Horse trams 1830’s - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horsecar
Passenger Rail - 1830 - Liverpool to Manchester Railway - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_rail_transport
Steam tram - UK - 1876 - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tram_engine
Cable/pulley tram - San Francisco - 1873 - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tram
Electric/trolley tram - Richmond, Virginia, in 1888 - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tram

(10) - Duany, Plater-Zyberk & Speck, Suburban Nation, p110.

x - Ref: car pollution and the cars environmental impact, the cars pollution and cars environment cost